Vsync vs Gsync Compared: Which is Better for Gaming? [2023]

vsync-vs-gsync-compared-which-is-better-for-gaming

We often get asked ‘Vsync vs Gsync : Which one is better?’

Are you overwhelmed with issues such as screen tearingimage quality, and input lag when playing your favorite video game on your PC? Struggling to find a reliable solution? We understand how frustrating it can be.

That’s why we have conducted thorough research and evaluated various graphic technologies that enhance the gaming experience such as Vsync, Gsync, FreeSync, and Adaptive Sync. In this blog post, will look into all these solutions in detail and compare them so you can find one best suited for your needs.

What is Vsync?

Vsync stands for Vertical Synchronization, which is a technology used in computer displays to synchronize the refresh rate of a monitor with the frames per second being sent by a graphical card to ensure seamless images on the display.

Definition

Vsync (or Vertical Synchronization) is a graphics technology that synchronizes the frame rate of a game with a gaming monitor’s refresh rate, which is the number of times it can draw images per second.

This type of synchronization helps to prevent “screen tearing,” which occurs when portions of multiple frames are displayed at once on your screen and create an unpleasant visual tear in your display.

To address this issue, Vsync works by limiting the frame rate output from your graphics card to match the hardware limitations of your gaming monitor. It does so using double buffering and page flipping procedures to accurately synchronize each drawing process onto the display without having any overlapping half-frames visible. 

You can read our post about the advantages and disadvantages of turning on or off Vsync.

Purpose

Vsync is an important feature for gamers looking to maintain a smooth gaming experience. It stands for vertical sync and it serves the purpose of synchronizing the frame rate output by the graphics card with that of a gaming monitor’s refresh rate.

So, when Vsync is enabled, it limits frames per second (FPS) output by the graphics card to match the monitor’s maximum refresh rate, thus eliminating any screen tearing. To achieve this synchronization between FPS and refresh rates, Vsync uses double buffering and page flipping methods which create two buffers in RAM- one for rendering images and the other for displaying them onscreen if there are more frames than those allowed by your display’s refresh rate.

Additionally, enabling Vsync could reduce input lag as well since games may run at lower FPS but potentially have better control lag ratings due to decreased motion blur caused by high or variable frame rates.

How it works

Vsync synchronizes the frame rate of a game with a gaming monitor’s refresh rate. It does this by essentially pausing or blocking a frame while the screen is refreshing, preventing overlapping frames from appearing. This synchronized refresh rate eliminates screen tearing and jagged images.

What is G-sync?

Gsync is a proprietary adaptive synchronization technology developed by Nvidia for liquid-crystal displays or monitors.

Definition

Gsync is a revolutionary graphics technology developed by NVIDIA that helps to smooth out the visuals of games on gaming monitors. This advanced Adaptive Sync feature synchronizes the frame rate of a game with your monitor’s refresh rate to eliminate screen tearing and stuttering, resulting in an improved visual experience and smoother gameplay.

The technology works by dynamically adjusting the monitor’s refresh rate as needed to match whatever frame rate outputted by the graphics card, enabling it to maintain a consistent and seamless graphically high-quality performance.

Gsync eliminates input lag, minimizes artifacts, reduces stuttering, and becomes active when connected with compatible GPUs or graphics cards that support their respective display technologies like FreeSync for AMD Radeon.

Purpose

Gsync is a display technology developed by NVIDIA specifically for gaming. It is intended to address many of the drawbacks associated with traditional Vsync, such as image precision, uniformity, and screen tearing issues.

Gsync works by synchronizing the refresh rate of the monitor with that of the graphics card so that it can render images more precisely onscreen and reduce latency. This results in smoother motion, sharper visuals, and less input lag while playing your favorite games.

Gsync uses what is known as adaptive sync which allows monitors to adjust their refresh rates dynamically based on where the frame appears most stable without any stuttering or juddering making it ideal for gamers who want maximum performance from their systems without sacrificing quality or accuracy.

How it works

Gsync is a technology developed by NVIDIA that synchronizes the refresh rate of the monitor with the GPU’s frame rate, enabling a smoother and more precise gaming experience. It works by constantly monitoring the image output of the GPU and then matching it to the refresh rate of the monitor, minimizing or eliminating input lag and screen tearing. This helps ensure that images are rendered properly at any frame rate, for optimal visual quality and performance. Gsync also ensures that video output remains uniform across different displays, providing an optimal gaming experience regardless of device. To use Gsync’s features, one needs to have a compatible NVIDIA graphics card and monitor. With Gsync enabled, gamers will enjoy consistently smooth visuals throughout any game regardless of its native FPS.

Vsync vs Gsync

Vsync and Gsync feature distinct differences in terms of their performance, features, requirements, and compatibility. Read further to understand how these differences translate into a better gaming experience.

Vsync vs Gsync : Input Lag

Input lag is an important design factor within gaming, as it affects the accuracy and responsiveness of a game. Input lag pertains to the latency between pressing buttons or moving controls on a controller and those input commands being carried out by the game.

When experienced during video games, this delay can cause unprecise control responses which leads to unpredictable character movements and inaccurate aiming — both key issues that affect competitive gamers in particular.

Input lag has been one of the most significant problems faced by PC gamers since CRT monitors, however, certain technologies allow users to mitigate it such as Vsync and Gsync.

Vsync works by synchronizing the refresh rate of your monitor with your framerate—a technique known as vertical synchronization—which reduces screen tearing but can sometimes result in more input lag depending on how efficiently it’s implemented.

On the other hand, Gsync features advanced hardware-based technology from NVIDIA which modulates how much power is sent to each frame thereby eliminating screen tearing while also reducing input lag drastically as compared to Vysnc solutions.

Vsync vs Gsync: Screen Tearing

Screen tearing is a display anomaly caused by the user’s graphics card sending frames to the monitor faster than they can be displayed onscreen. It causes objects or characters on-screen to appear in multiple pieces, making them look distorted and blurred and resulting in an unpleasant gaming experience.

To minimize this issue, Vsync technology was developed to synchronize the placing of frames onto the screen and eliminate screen tearing. In simple terms, Vsync works by using double buffering and page flipping which helps determine when each frame should be placed on-screen based on its refresh rate.

This synchronization between GPU outputted frames and monitor display input ensures that any motion artifacts occurring due to a mismatch between graphical output rates are eliminated leading to smooth visuals with minimal stuttering or blurring.

Vsync vs Gsync: Frame Rate Variability

Frame rate variability refers to the fluctuations in number of frames displayed per second within a video game. To keep up with fast-paced gameplay, video gamers need consistent and seamless frame rates; any lag can give an opponent an advantage.

Vsync and G-sync technology are both employed to ensure frame rate stability and synchronization between graphic cards and monitors for smoother gaming sessions. Vsync forces vertical refresh rate, often set at 60 FPS (frames per second) or more, allowing fluid interaction even during intense action sequences requiring high graphical demand.

On the other hand, newer technologies like G-sync use advanced adaptive synchronization methods such as dynamic refresh rates which enable low input latency and image precision along with enhanced uniformity aiming to reduce signs of screen tearing too.

Vsync vs Gsync: Compatibility and Requirements

Vsync and Gsync both offer benefits to PC gamers, but they have different compatibility and requirements. Most modern NVIDIA and AMD graphics cards come with access to Gsync or FreeSync technologies. Some monitors are also specifically designed for adaptive synchronization technology. For the most part, any monitor that supports regular VGA or DVI connectors will be compatible with Vsync technology.

Vsync vs Gsync: Pros and Cons of Vsync

Vsync offers a great solution in providing smoother and improved image quality, however, it comes with its drawbacks such as increased input lag and potential stuttering.

Benefits

  1. Vsync synchronizes the frame rate of a game with the monitor’s refresh rate, preventing screen tearing that can occur when the screen displays portions from multiple frames simultaneously.
  2. Double buffering and page flipping help eliminate screen tearing that would otherwise distract gamers from enjoying their gaming experience.
  3. Vsync also prevents higher frames per second than what a monitor can handle, ensuring smoother gameplay for all games regardless of complexity or graphics settings used by the gamer.
  4. By reducing visual artifacts caused by screen tearing, Vsync provides an improved level of visual accuracy and realism to gamers who prioritize visual consistency over maximum performance.

Drawbacks

  1. Vsync can limit the performance of GPUs, as it caps the frame rate to the monitor’s refresh rate – potentially providing a lower gaming experience than what is possible without Vsync in place.
  2. Enabling Vsync may lead to increased input lag caused by synchronization between GPU and monitor which can significantly reduce responsiveness during fast-paced games.
  3. While Vsync does offer benefits when reducing screen tearing, it does not improve resolution, colors, or brightness levels where GPU capability is already at maximum potential.

4 Using Vsync also creates potential stuttering issues as frames are dropped if they fail to synchronize smoothly with video card output until it catches up with the next one causing severe lags in gameplay that could be frustrating to some players depending on their hardware capabilities and demands for gaming.

When to Use

When your frame rate (especially in older games) is higher than the refresh rate of your monitor, it can result in ‘screen tearing’ – where each frame appears on the screen split with parts from two separate frames.

This phenomenon creates a jarring experience for gamers and detracts visibly from the gaming experience. Vsync acts as a synchronizing technique to restrain high framerates by buffering them against the monitor’s refresh cycle, thereby eliminating any perceivable tearing.

By enabling Vsync, gamers ensure that their graphics card will always adhere to their monitor’s maximum frequency while waiting for new frames to load when video memory reaches its peak limit rather than disrupting the visuals with momentarily freezes or torn sketches.

Vsync vs Gsync: Pros and Cons of Gsync

Gsync offers improved performance and a smoother gaming experience compared to Vsync but comes at a price. Learn more in this article to make the right choice for your gaming needs!

Benefits

G-sync is a type of adaptive sync technology that provides improved image precisionuniformity and eliminates screen tearing. G-sync works by synchronization between the display refresh rate allowed by your graphics card and monitor. With G-sync enabled, you can expect reduced input lagbetter frame rates with minimal stuttering or judderingimproved transition streaming through greater detail when playing games or watching videos. Furthermore, it increases the overall gaming experience by providing more immersive visuals as compared to Vsync technology.

Drawbacks

  1. Gsync can potentially impact performance by taxing the GPU.
  2. There may be an increased input lag from enabling Gsync, as it forces additional frames to display than would otherwise occur naturally.
  3. Installing Gsync on a monitor that already has high refresh rates can lead to screen stuttering and juddering when the GPU isn’t able to output sufficiently smooth frames for the monitor’s refresh rate in real-time.
  4. Gsync is a solution and not perfect; there will still be issues with motion blur, image precision, uniformity across the entire display, and screen tearing if you have it enabled – particularly at lower frame rates or without an up-to-date driver version installed on your graphics card hardware.

When to Use

Knowing when to use Gsync technology is important for taking advantage of its features and ensuring the smoothest gameplay possible. G-sync is ideal for gamers who are playing at high frame rates, above their monitor’s refresh rate.

In this case, the display may become overwhelmed as it attempts to keep up with the action on screen which can cause things like screen tearing or stutter frames. Using G-sync helps reduce these issues by allowing a seamless handoff between graphics cards and monitors so images stay sharp despite changes in frame rate caused by intense gaming sessions.

Additionally, since G-sync synchronizes refresh rate according to just produced frames without altering latency or visual quality, competitive gamers rely heavily upon it as slight fractions of a second can be decisive when battling online opponents.

Even though casual gamers don’t require such millisecond-level accuracy, they still benefit from much smoother visuals and improved image quality that comes along with using this feature for more immersive experiences.

Adaptive Vsync vs Gsync

Adaptive Vsync works by automatically adjusting the synchronization settings depending on the frame rate and monitor refresh rate. It offers better performance than traditional Vsync, as well as eliminating some of its issues such as stuttering and screen tearing.

When the GPU’s frames per second are above or below the monitor’s refresh rate, Adaptive Vsync will engage or disengage respectively to maintain an optimal display experience. In comparison, G-sync and FreeSync technologies more synchronize graphical elements with their respective software estimates – that is they sync up both video output from graphics cards and input data from a gaming mouse for example with their proprietary algorithms that adjust based on current game/system loads.

This means smoother visuals without any drops in FPS during certain parts of games, providing an even better experience overall when compared to traditional Vsync solutions. Furthermore, it allows for much more reliable 120Hz+ displays compared to those relying only on plain old Vsync tech alone.

Vsync vs Gsync vs Nvidia vs AMD FreeSync

Vsync, G-sync, and AMD FreeSync are technology solutions that attempt to communicate between the images being generated by a graphics card and the display it is outputting them on.

Vsync was designed to address screen tearing – an issue that occurs when parts of frames from two or more images overlap each other, resulting in jarring artifacts. To combat this, double buffering and page flipping techniques essentially tell the monitor what parts of what frame were generated last for it to accurately display those same parts onto its display.

This helps reduce variance between frames per second (fps) rates but also causes input lag in games with relatively low fps since the lack of transparency makes all operations wait until a full new image is produced before updating any part of it.

Vsync vs Gsync for Gaming

Vsync and G-sync are two popular technologies designed to improve the gaming experience. Both address screen tearing, a visual artifact that occurs when multiple frames get displayed simultaneously on your monitor’s refresh rate.

While Vsync works by limiting the frame rate output of your graphics card to match your monitor’s refresh rate, thus eliminating screen tearing in most instances, G-sync creates a variable refresh rate for smoother visuals.

With both options, it is important to consider how they will affect performance and input lagcompatibility with graphics cards and monitors as well as budget considerations before choosing which one is right for you.

From our experience, w.r.t to Vsync vs Gsync for gaming – Vsync stands out!

Factors to Consider: Vsync vs Gsync

When choosing between the two, it’s important to consider your budget as well as your gaming needs, graphics card, and monitor compatibility.

Personal Preference and Gaming Needs

When deciding between Vsync and Gsync, personal preferences and gaming needs are important to consider. Different gamers may prioritize different factors such as screen tearinginput lagframe rate variabilityimage precision, uniformity, etc., and both Vsync and Gsync technologies address most of these concerns.

Factors such as budget considerations or graphics card compatibility also affect which technology is chosen Ultimately it becomes a matter of personal preference for different types of gaming scenarios.

For example, competitive gamers may prioritize speed over image quality while casual gamers may prefer smooth visuals with less tearing even at the cost of some performance sacrifices.

Budget Considerations

When deciding between Vsync and G-sync technologies, the budget should be considered. Enabling Vsync can have a performance impact, potentially increasing input lag at times but there is no additional cost associated with this.

On the other hand, when opting for G-sync or FreeSync capabilities on a gaming monitor, the extra cost may come into play which could increase your overall budget significantly. Moreover, advanced versions of Vsync such as Adaptive Vsync and Fast Sync require an expensive graphics card upgrade to work effectively and must also be taken into account when finalizing your system’s components.

In any case, choosing wisely from all the available options based on your wallet will help you create an amazing gaming setup without breaking the bank!

Graphics Card Compatibility

When it comes to using Graphics Card Synchronization technologies such as Vsync and G-sync, Compatibility is essential for ensuring optimal performance. Both technologies require hardware that supports them; this usually means newer versions of graphics cards with meeting the minimum requirements needed for the technology to work correctly.

Additionally, both these Synchronization options also typically have further compatibility considerations based on display type or resolution. For instance, while it’s possible to derive some benefit from Vsync even when used with less powerful graphics cards, frame rate improvements are more significant when paired with higher-end GPUs suited to fast-paced gaming scenarios.

On the other hand, G-sync requires an approved NVIDIA GPU combined with a compatible monitor and can use its automatic adjustment capabilities over wider refresh rates and resolution ranges than can be achieved by most standard Vsync setups.

Monitor Compatibility

Monitor compatibility is a critical consideration for gamers looking to get the most out of their gaming experience. Vsync and Gsync are technologies designed to improve monitor compatibility, giving users more control over how their monitors display graphics.

Vsync is a widely supported technology that works with most GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) and displays, using driver compatibility to regulate screen updates by syncing frames with the refresh rate of the monitor.

This helps reduce tearing and maintain fluidity when gaming at high frame rates. Gsync requires specific hardware support on compatible monitors to take advantage of adaptive-refresh technology which gives users smoother frame rates without introducing input lag caused by memory buffering or other delay mechanisms required by some prior versions of Vsync.

G-sync vs Vsync input lag

G-sync technology can provide a high-quality gaming experience by reducing input lag. It uses a system of synchronizing the monitor’s refresh rate with the graphics card’s frame rate, making sure that frames are delivered to the display as quickly and smoothly as possible.

This reduces both screen tearing and latency compared to traditional Vsync solutions which often introduce more input lag due to their reliance on limiting frame rates to match the display’s refresh frequency.

G-sync offers greater responsiveness while playing games, providing gamers with smoother visuals and improved gameplay compared to Vsync alone. By dynamically adjusting the monitor’s refresh rate according to its graphics card, it ensures that content is displayed at optimal speeds without any stutter or spikes in FPS all from one single hardware solution – something no other technology can offer.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What do I need to enable Vsync technology?

To enable Vsync technology, both hardware and software components are necessary. At the most basic level, you need a graphics card with support for the programming interface to enable synchronization between your game’s frame rate and monitor refresh rates.

Software-wise a compatible driver must also be installed that will allow support for double buffering and page flipping as these are important functions for eliminating screen tearing.

Additionally, it’s important to ensure that any gaming monitor used is capable of synchronizing at the desired resolution and frequency; failing this may lead to undesired performance or image quality issues.

2. Is Vsync better than G-sync or FreeSync?

The short answer is that it depends on personal preference and gaming needs. Both Vsync and G-sync offer different solutions to the problem of screen tearing, but numerous key differences between them should be taken into account when considering one for your system.

Generally speaking, if you’re looking for a smoother experience with less input lag then G-sync may be the way to go as its variable refresh rate capabilities will automatically adjust according to changes in the frame rate output by the graphics card.

On the other hand; Vsync puts an artificial cap on frames per second so games won’t run any faster than what’s supported by your monitor, which can help reduce input lag but at a cost of potential performance drops due to dropped or stuttered frames.

3. Is it ok Vsync on or off with Gsync?

Deciding whether to have Vsync turned on or off when using Gsync is a decision that gamers must carefully consider. Although enabling Vsync may theoretically reduce any potential screen tearing, the performance hit and lag associated with having it enabled may not be worth it in most cases – especially if you are using Gsync which already eliminates any potential screen tearing.

Some players might even experience increased input lag if they enable both Vsync and Gsync at the same time! Ultimately, this decision depends on personal preference as well as gaming needs – but for the smoothest gaming experience possible without sacrificing performance or introducing additional latency issues, it’s generally recommended to keep Vsync turned off while using Gsync monitors.

4. Should I use Vsync and G-sync together?

The answer is no. Vsync and G-sync are both technologies used to reduce screen tearing, but they operate differently, and combining them can lead to issues such as input lag or decreased performance.

Generally, G-sync is a hardware-based technology that synchronizes the monitor’s refresh rate with the graphics card’s frame rate for smooth gaming without any of the drawbacks associated with Vsync.

Due to this fact, using G-sync eliminates the need for Vsync, thus making it unnecessary—and even detrimental—to use them together. On top of this, having both active at once often results in conflicting settings which further reduces performance outcomes and increases input delay when playing games.

5. Is Vsync smoother than G-sync?

It is a common misconception that G-sync and Vsync have similar smoothness. While both technologies are designed to prevent screen tearing, they differ in how that’s achieved. Vsync takes advantage of double buffering technology which introduces additional wait time between frames for synchronization purposes.

This can lead to increased input lag and put a cap on your maximum frame rate capabilities, while G-sync eliminates the need for waiting by dynamically adjusting refresh rates to match the output framerate.

This makes Gsync much smoother than Vsync as it works more quickly providing immediate drawing of each new video frame without any extra delays. Ultimately this means fewer dropped frames with G-sync calibrated devices resulting in an overall smoother visual experience with onscreen animations looking smoother and snappier than what Vsync can provide users’ hardware components permitting better response times and rendering every movement seamlessly across multiple frames per second improving the gaming experience all around!

6. Should you enable Vsync with G-sync?

Yes, you should enable Vsync with G-sync as it can help eliminate screen tearing and make games look visually appealing. However, enabling Vsync with G-sync may also impact performance by limiting the frame rate and potentially increasing input lag.

Thankfully, there are alternative versions of Vsync such as Adaptive Vsync and Fast Sync which can be used in conjunction with G-sync to address some of these limitations. Adaptive Vsync dynamically enables or disables Vsync depending on the game’s frame rate and the monitor’s refresh rate while Fast Sync adds automatic triple buffering to pick the best frame data possible for improved synchronization.

Ultimately, whether you choose to use Vsync or not will depend heavily on your own gaming needs and preferences.

7. Should I enable Vsync in games with G-sync?

The question posed is contingent upon personal preference and gaming requirements. G-sync, developed by NVIDIA, provides synchronization of a graphics card’s output with the refresh rate of your gaming monitor.

By synchronizing vertical refresh rates, the technology eliminates visual artifacts such as screen tearing or stuttering that are sometimes caused when frames rendered and ready to be displayed arrive too quickly for the monitor’s viewing cycle; this is one of the core functions that it achieves without relying on Vsync.

It does however support features available with Vsync-enabled games such as triple buffering which increases frame data accuracy within a single 3D scene while still providing high-performance benefits of greater than 60 fps gameplay.

8. Does G-sync work with Vsync off?

Yes, G-sync can work with Vsync turned off. G-sync is an NVIDIA propriety technology that synchronizes the frame output from a graphics card to match the refresh rate of a compatible monitor.

This eliminates screen tearing which occurs when multiple frames are displayed at once, providing a smoother game experience and eliminating juddering. Unlike Vsync which isn’t necessary for using G-sync and may introduce additional input latency, turning it off enables G-sync to use its predictive capabilities to match dynamically between the GPU render rate and display’s refresh rate without compromising smoothness or performance.

The result is that should you turn Vsync off while having a supported (G-sync) monitor connected will allow games to be rendered natively on whatever framerate they’re capable of outputting up until either your maximum refresh rate of your monitor or your GPUs max limit whichever comes first.

9. Do you still need Vsync on for G-sync?

No, Vsync is no longer necessary when using G-Sync. This technology synchronizes the frame rate of a game with a gaming monitor’s refresh rate to provide smoother gameplay without input lag.

Developed by NVIDIA, this advanced piece of tech eliminates screen tearing and provides smooth visuals without any performance decrease as seen with Vsync enabled. GSync also minimizes input lag and works for both AMD and NVIDIA GPUs, unlike Vsync which was limited to only AMD cards.

Thus, you can enjoy all the benefits of enhanced visual quality while avoiding artifacts associated with enabling VSync in games. So overall it looks like Vsync is no longer required along with G-Sync nowadays if you want to get the most out of your gaming experience!

10. Is Vsync better than G-sync?

When it comes to input lag, screen tearing, and frame rate output, both Vsync and G-sync have their unique advantages. When used correctly, both technologies can improve the overall gaming experience substantially, but knowing the key differences between them helps gamers pick which one best suits their individual needs.

Vsync is a back buffer synchronization technology that limits the graphic card’s maximum frame rate output to match the monitor’s refresh rate to minimize redundant frames and input lag.

However, this process of matching can slightly add more delay between user inputs and actions on-screen. As such, many modern games are now using an upgraded version of Vsync – Adaptive Vsync – which is designed to alleviate the issue by dynamically controlling the frame rates when they drop below or exceed certain thresholds thus reducing potential hardware impact caused by overworking GPUs at lower framerates.

G-sync module works via proprietary hardware connection with your graphics card allowing for smooth sync without any issues related to Vsync-induced lag or screen tearing caused by mismatched refresh rates as these refresh rates get seen from GPU directly rather than being limited externally like traditional Vsync-based solutions would do since it’s plug & play “Nvidia certified” device no software setup needed just plug in your monitor’s display port cable into Gsync slot and you good to go making it much simpler solution than complex adaptive synchronization techniques required with classic vertical sync implementations where crucial system configuration had done precisely once installed.

Vsync vs Gsync: Which is better?

Vsync and G-sync are two popular technologies designed to reduce screen tearingimprove image quality, and deliver improved frame rates. Vsync is available in most games without the need for extra hardware or displays, but it can cause input lag and stuttering issues.

G-sync addresses some of these issues by syncing the GPU’s frame rate with a monitor’s refresh rate. Both technologies offer their benefits however they come at different levels of expense – G-sync monitors being much more expensive than those supporting Vsync.

Ultimately, deciding on which technology to use depends on personal preference as well as budget constraints and graphics card/monitor compatibility. With all factors considered, users should be able to pick out the best option suited for them when considering Vsync vs Gsync technology.

Author:
I am a computer engineer holding a bachelor's degree in Computer Science, complemented by a Master's in Business Administration from University of Strathclyde, Scotland. I currently work as a Senior IT Consultant in Melbourne, Australia. With over 15 years of...